SAP BLOG SAP Purchasing Process – Simplified Overview

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SAP%20Purchasing%20Process%20-%20Simplified%20Overview


SAP Purchasing Process – Simplified Overview​

In order to give a simplified overview about the accounting movements related to the purchasing process, let ‘s explain in 5 steps the impact:

1- Purchase Order


In case of replenishment needs, purchasing department formalize its requirement by creating purchase requisition or directly purchase orders (MM module). If needed, a workflow validation can be applied to purchase orders. At this stage of the process, no accounting document is created. Commitments can be activated for a follow-up of orders. Reports can be used to display order history like ME2N, ME2L or ME2K in case of contracts.

If the SAP MM module is not activated, Accountants can create a direct vendor invoice by the Tcode FB60.

Below some useful customizing tcodes:

Material%20Management




2-Goods receipt


After the reception of the Purchase order form, the vendor will deliver the goods accordingly to the terms of the PO. When goods will be received, the goods recipient will materialize this by the creation of Goods reception Tcode MIGO.

Accounting document related to the good receipt will be created based on a combination of characteristics. The combination of Valuation group, Material valuation class and transaction are used to drive the Account to use. This integration between Finance and logistic is ensured by integration table accessible by the Tcode OBYC (table T030).

The accounting document created at this step is like following

GOOD_Receipt.png


While creating this movement, we can for example: Confirm quantities received, Use appropriate Movement code (101 & 103 example) & Check your stock status in MMBE

Below some useful customizing tcodes:

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3- Invoice receipt


Like for goods, when the accountant receive the vendor invoice after the goods receipt confirmation, he will create the vendor invoice. The vendor invoice can be with reference to purchase order or to material document. Accounting document related to the invoice receipt will be created based on a combination of characteristics. The combination of Valuation group, Material valuation class and transaction are used to drive the Account to use. This integration between Finance and logistic is ensured by integration table accessible by the Tcode OBYC (table T030).

The accounting document created at this step is like following

No alt text provided for this image


While creating this movement, accountant can for example: Fill amount and in case of gaps he will choose the appropriate action based on the firm polities, Fill appropriate tax code, Fill terms and conditions, Fill appropriate payment method (optional) & Fill house bank (optional)

Below some useful customizing tcodes:

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4- Vendor Payment


Accordingly to the terms and condition filled in the invoice, the treasury department can create manual payment (F-53) or automatic payment (F110). For manual payment, the accountant should enter all the required information like banking details. For automatic payment, a mass payment can be managed. If the vendor invoice is illegible for payment, the automatic program will retrieve it. The bank details are not required, the system will determine the bank details based on the settings related to payment method on FBZP.

The accounting document created at this step is like following

No alt text provided for this image


While creating this movement, accountant can for example: Fill amount and in case of gaps he will choose the appropriate action based on the firm polities, Fill appropriate tax code, Fill due date, Fill appropriate payment method (optional), & Fill house bank (optional)

Below some useful customizing tcodes:

No alt text provided for this image




5- EBS Integration


After electronic bank statement integration, Accounting document is created based on the configuration done in OT83.

The accounting document created at this step is like following

EBS_1.png


The tcode FEBAN can allow the Cash management accountant to process this flow

Below some useful customizing tcodes:

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Basic settings


Prior any process run in SAP , some basic accounting customizing are required. A list of the main steps are listed here, but not all the customizing tcodes are mentioned. The customizing is module dependent. So, if you want to implement SAP COPA (profitability analysis), many steps should be performed before running profitability analysis reporting. Example: Creation of operating concern, COPA Characteristics..etc

If you are implementing SAP COPA during a S4HANA project, please keep in mind that COPA Characteristics will be inserted like a column in the universal journal (ACDOCA table) after the regeneration of the operating concern. This is very important for reporting purpose.

Below some main tcodes for Accounting settings:

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Conclusion


At the end, if we want to draw a simple picture of the logistic flow, the figure below can be a good match!

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